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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
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<ns2:metadata
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        xsi:schemaLocation="http://ns.dataone.org/metadata/schema/onedcx/v1.0 http://ns.dataone.org/metadata/schema/onedcx/v1.0/onedcx_v1.0.xsd"
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        <ns2:simpleDc>
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                <title>Mugs of the Mesa and Old Chocolate: Evidence of Prehistoric
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                        Cacao Use in the Mesa Verde Region of the North American Southwest
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                        (Contributed Poster)</title>
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                <creator>De Loera, Alexia (The University of San Diego)</creator>
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                <creator>Millar, Donald (The University of San Diego)</creator>
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                <creator>Klein, Lauren (The University of San Diego)</creator>
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                <creator>Fernandez, Andrew</creator>
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                <subject>ceramic analysis</subject>
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                <subject>Mesa Verde</subject>
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                <subject>American Southwest</subject>
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                <type>Document</type>
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                <identifier>http://alpha.tdar.org/document/48701/mugs-of-the-mesa-and-old-chocolate-evidence-of-prehistoric-cacao-use-in-the-mesa-verde-region-of-the-north-american-southwest-contributed-poster
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                </identifier>
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                <type>Text</type>
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                <contributor>Society of American Archaeology</contributor>
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                <publisher>Society of American Archaeology, San Francisco, California
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                </publisher>
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                <type>conference</type>
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        </ns2:simpleDc>
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        <ns2:dcTerms>
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                <abstract>Undergraduate Anthropology and Chemistry students at the
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                        University of San Diego (USD) collaborated on the application of
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                        analytical chemistry to archaeological ceramics. USD curates 1000’s
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                        of prehistoric Southwestern artifacts, all of which are available for
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                        student research. We examined some of the collections vessels for
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                        cacao, which is the raw form of chocolate. Patricia Crown and W.
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                        Jeffrey Hurst recently found it in cylinder jar fragments from Chaco
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                        Canyon. Crown’s methodology was adapted for our project, using the
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                        university’s mugs from the Mesa Verde region near Durango, Colorado.
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                        The chemical analysis of residues extracted from Pueblo II to Pueblo
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                        III period (A.D. 1100 to 1300) Mesa Verde mugs indicates the presence
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                        of theobromine, a chemical component of cacao. In all, 24 vessels
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                        were tested using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two mugs
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                        had positive indications for chocolate. Cacao is endemic to
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                        Mesoamerica and was used in ritual practice that made its way north
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                        with other exotica. The chemical results will be discussed along with
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                        an analysis of long distance trade networks as well as the
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                        morphological, iconographic and use-wear characteristic of each
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                        vessel.</abstract>
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                <created xsi:type="W3CDTF">2015-04-02T21:49:28-07:00</created>
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                <bibliographicCitation>Mugs of the Mesa and Old Chocolate: Evidence of
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                        Prehistoric Cacao Use in the Mesa Verde Region of the North American
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                        Southwest (Contributed Poster). Alexia De Loera, Donald Millar,
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                        Lauren Klein, Andrew Fernandez. Presented at Society of American
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                        Archaeology, San Francisco, California. 2015 ( tDAR id: 48701) ;
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                        doi:10.6067/XCV848701</bibliographicCitation>
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                <spatial>North America - Southwest</spatial>
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                <references>http://alpha.tdar.org/document/48701/mugs-of-the-mesa-and-old-chocolate-evidence-of-prehistoric-cacao-use-in-the-mesa-verde-region-of-the-north-american-southwest-contributed-poster
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                </references>
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                        southlimit=30.675715404167743; westlimit=-115.5322265625;
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                        eastlimit=-102.36926193209942;</spatial>
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                <!--  <temporal>2014</temporal> -->
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                <temporal xsi:type="Period">start=2015;end=2016;</temporal>
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                <created>2015</created>
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        </ns2:dcTerms>
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</ns2:metadata>