need R actor
create an actor to execute R jobs via kepler. Later, establish a GridService
that can handle this for us.
#1 Updated by Matt Jones about 15 years ago
STart with running it locally. Start with command line invocation, but it would
be much better to directly call the R dynamic library via a JNI interface. Test
by implementing the sub-sampling algorithms needed for the GARP pipeline. Need
to determine how to dynamically change the I/O signature of the actor when a
specific R script is bound to the actor -- this is a general problem with all
scripted actors, and is similar to the problem in the EML200 parser and the WSDL
#4 Updated by Matt Jones over 14 years ago
A limitied R actor is now working on Windows and Linux and Mac (although limited
graphical capabilities on Mac because of lack of jpg support) that uses the
commandline actor to execute an R script. It however requires a custom workflow
to stage the inputs and outputs properly for each script. We need to eliminate
the need for this 'plumbing' in R to support the inputs and outputs that vary
with each R script.
One approach is to have an interface def language for R scripts that basically
provides a formal documentation of the R script inputs, outputs, and function.
This could be very similar in nature to what Chad and I did in Monarch
previously. Basically a 'WSDL' for R. The interface would list each of the
inputs that the script expects, its formal type, and how it expects to access it
(e.g., from a particular file, or through a particular stream). It would do the
same for the outputs, listing each output with its type and how delivered (e.g.,
file with name '/tmp/graph1.jpg' as output). The 'R actor' would then parse
this information and expose a dynamic set of prots with appropriate types, just
as the WSDL actor does. A user could then use an R script just by having the R
actor read this interface description. The interface description could even
contain the R script itself, which would make it a self-contained unit that
could be transported as an actor (only needing the 'R' actor to interpret and
run it). This is basically the framework we had in Monarch.
This system also would enable us to have an 'R import dialog' in which someone
can list the inputs and outputs of an R script, associate them with files or
streams, and paste in the R script, which would then generate an R interface def
and allow it to be stored in the library tree as a specialized R actor. This
interface already partly exists in the 'New actor' functionality that chad
developed for Kepler, in that it allows the i/o signature of an actor to be
In this scenario, the R actor would get re-written to only contain one
parameter, which is a pointer to the R-script interface file. From that file it
can get everything it needs to ingest the inputs, run the script (through
commandline or otherwise), and expose the outputs on the output ports with the
proper types. This is exactly analogous to how the EML actor works and the WSDL
actor works, so we have existing code that shows how this can be done.
#5 Updated by Dan Higgins over 14 years ago
In his recent comments added to the R-bug in kepler/Bugzilla (#1342), Matt
suggests that we need to create some sort of interface definition language for R
scripts (a sort of WSDL for R). His suggestions triggered some additional
thought(s) about this subject which I will attempt to document here.
Consider first R and just what data types it uses. In general, R is a
functional language that operates on named data structures. Probably the most
common data structure is the R vector which is a sequence of numbers, booleans,
or strings. R is not strongly typed, meaning that content type of vectors need
not be specified prior to use; types are determined by the values. All sorts of
functions can be applied to these vectors and the ability to apply mathematical
operations to a vector eliminates the need for many explicit looping operations
required in lower level languages (C, Java, etc.). Of course, R also has other
data types like the data frame, which is basically a collection of vectors
(think of columns in a table). Often, analyses are started by importing a table
from a file into a dataframe and individual columns are pulled from the
dataframe as vectors and operated on with R functions. (Incidently, the R
Reference Manual Base Package is a 700 page book just documenting functions in
the R base package; R has a 'lot' of functions!) .
A common R input is a vector (or table) which is assigned a name when
imported and the name is later manipulated by various functions. The actual
import is typically a string entered from the keyboard or a datafile (table)
read from the file system.
R output is usually text displayed on the screen or a plot created by R in a
graphics device. Functions often display some summary results; plots are the
results of specific functions and appear on 'graphic devices'. To export to
other systems, the plots generally need to be written to graphic files.
So what type of ports would an R actor have if used in Kepler? Tables could
of course be referenced as filenames or text streams. But R vectors might well
be input as what are called 'arrays' in the Kepler/Ptolemy expression language.
And output ports would presumable be text strings or file names, or perhaps
Note that some of the Kepler token types are similar to R data types. The
kepler token array corresponds to the R vector. A Kepler record can attach a
name to kepler array, so an array of kepler records could be converted to/from
an R dataframe.
Now, an interesting 'feature' of Kepler (inherited from Ptolemy) is that one
can add ports to any(?) actor by
simply using the 'Configure Ports' menu item of the context (popup) menu. In
fact, adding ports to many actors is meaningless because the actor is not
written to respond to new ports! [And it has been noted that adding ports,
configuring the actor, changing the actor name, etc. should probably all be done
in a single dialog.]
The one actor where adding a number of new input ports is very useful and
meaningful is the Expression actor. When new input ports are added and named,
the name can then be used in the 'expression' that appears inside the actor! The
expression is just a function that operates on the named input parameters and
creates a result. [Note that the Expression actor has a single resulting output
(although this may be a vector, matrix, etc.), although one can add additional
output ports to an Expression actor, they really are meaningless.]
One might think of an R script as an extension of a Kepler expression.
Certainly the input data could be treated as in the Expression actor. Simply
create input ports, and give these ports a name and (perhaps) a type. For
example, Kepler arrays could be mapped directly to R vectors and the R vector
given the port name. That port name would be used in the R script to operate on
the input data. [Actually, the R actor could automatically examine the token
type to determine how to convert to an R type. A string could just be entered as
an R command; a fileParameter could be read as a dataframe; an array as an R
vector.] Do we really need a special interface definition language to describe
the Kepler inputs to an R actor? My thought is 'No' --- the MOML port
specification is sufficient.
But what about output? Much of the output of R is just text which appears
when a command (or script) is entered and executed. One output port could thus
just transmit the R text output stream (either as a single token or as a series
of tokens - see the ExpressionReader actor). Another type of output is an image
(plot) created by R. This is probably in the form of an image file name (e.g. a
jpeg file); R creates the image file and its name is returned to Kepler. (Most
likely, Kepler then uses another actor to display the result.) In some cases,
the desired output may be in the form of Kepler arrays, matrices, or records.
These might be needed for further processing in a workflow. The actor thus needs
a method for converting R objects (especially vectors) to Kepler arrays, etc.
So, one could consider simply mapping R objects to Kepler ports. The port name
would be the R object name and the port type would determine how the R object is
converted to a Kepler token.
So I guess that I am not convinced that we need a 'formal' WSDL for R, at
least for use only within Kepler. I think that any data needed to define I/O can
be included in Port definitions, thus avoiding the needless complexity of
another interface definition language. (We might need a better dialog for
setting port parameters, however!). As I see it, the creator of a general
purpose R actor understands R well enough to create an R script which is like
the expression in an Expression actor. Input ports are added to represent inputs
and port names can be used in the script. Output ports would be similarly
defined, with perhaps a standard port for text output.
#6 Updated by Matt Jones over 14 years ago
OK, to summarize the phone call from last week. We all agree an effiective R
actor needs to provide the following capabilities:
1) Easily import existing R scripts by * letting user choose script * user defines ports for all script inputs and outputs * actor searches script and automagically provides plumbing to
2) Execute the R script in an existing workflow without any additional
configuration on the part of the user. That is, if a workflow with an R actor
in it works on one Kepler instance (e.g., Windows), it should work on all other
Kepler instances without modification (ie, no path fixes, temp file renaming, etc)
The key here that we are trying to acheive is ease of use through transparent
functionality. If someone binds an R script for Linear Regression to the R
actor, they should be able to register that in the user library and from then on
all other users should be able to use that regression actor without modification
(just drop it in place, connect the ports, and run).
Handling (1) the import of actors will probably require a new GUI component, or
at least a specialized configuration dialog that can take the R script as an
attribute. The process might look like this for importing an R script:
a) User drags generic R actor onto canvas
b) user opens the configure dialog for that actor and
b1) pastes the R script of interest into the script field
b2) creates ports for all of the inputs expected by the R script
Ideally that would be it and the R actor would be able to map between the port
name and the tokens in the script. For example, assume a script needed two
vectors of floats as input named 'x' and 'y' in the script and produced a
scatterplot in an image file of type image/gif called 'scatterplot'. When the
user imports the actor, he would create two input ports named x and y of type
array of float, and one output port named 'scatterplot' of type 'Object' ( I'm
not sure about that last type decision). The R actor would then automatically
and without further configuration be able to take data coming in on the two
input ports (x and y) and provide it to the exectuing R script, and take the out
file and provide it on the output port (scatterplot). This means reading the
temporary file that the R put generates using an InputStream and emitting the
data on the port. In addition, becauser the R script used a temporary file for
staging the output, ideally the R actor will 'know' to substitute a temporary
file name instead of the default 'scatterplot' name in the script so that two or
more instances of this actor in the same or different workflows don't overwrite
each others output graphs.
With this functionality we will be able to import a suite of R actors that do
common tasks that scientists can use, such as regression, anova, means by group,
etc. These new actors are described in a new set of bugs (see bug #2043).
#7 Updated by Dan Higgins about 14 years ago
Closing this bug because the RExpression actor has been created. This actor
allows basic R functionality to be easily inserted into a Kepler workflow and
has conversion i/o routines for connecting to Kepler tokens as R objects.
Note that only a subset of all R object types are handled, but these include
arrays and dataframes.